One-sixth of the world's population lives in India, which occupies only about 2% of the world's area. One-sixth of India's population is in Uttar Pradesh (UP), the most populous and largest Indian state, with an estimated 166 million people. If UP were a country, it would be the 7th largest country in the world.
The urban population of UP is estimated to be about 35 million or 21%. The most populated cities are: Agra, Aligarh, Allahabad, Bareli, Ghaziabad, Kanpur, Lucknow, Meerut, Moradabad and Varanasi. In 2004-2005, about 31% (11.7 million) of the urban dwellers were poor.
UP has the second highest total fertility rate (3.8) in India and experiences about 1,000 births daily among the urban poor. The unmet need for contraceptives is 22%; 9% for spacing and 13% for limiting births. Contraceptive use is closely related to wealth – 50% of people in the lowest quintile do not use contraceptives.
The country program of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative in India, called the Urban Health Initiative (UHI), is being implemented in six cities in UP: Agra, Aligarh, Allahabad, Gorakhpur, Moradabad and Varanasi. Successful strategies will be scaled up over time. UHI, led by FHI 360, is a 5-year (2009-2014) integrated family planning project designed to assist the Government of UP in revitalizing the state's family planning program in urban areas.
UHI will promote contraceptive use for child spacing among the lowest and second-lowest wealth quintiles in an effort to significantly increase the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) by 2014 in selected cities of UP.
This will be accomplished by:
- Developing cost-effective interventions for integrating quality family planning with postpartum and post-abortion services;
- Improving the quality of family planning services for the urban poor with emphasis on high-volume clinic settings;
- Testing innovative private-sector approaches to increase access to and use of family planning by the urban poor;
- Developing interventions for creating demand for and sustaining use of contraceptives; and
- Increasing funding and financial mechanisms and a supportive policy environment for ensuring access to family planning supplies and services for the urban poor.
FHI 360 will provide leadership to ensure successful implementation of activities among the five core partners and six Technical Assistance (TA) partners.